Forcing people to do their best and be productive even in difficult economic times – is one of the most enduring and slippery challenges head. Motivation – a centuries-old puzzle that celebrated the greatest in the history of history from Aristotle to Abraham Maslow.
If in the 1950s and 1960s, Frederick Herzberg researched the sources of employee motivation, he found dyhatomiyu that still intrigues (and surprising) leaders: the things that make people happy and motivated to work, different course from the things that make them dissatisfied. . Ask workers what makes them unhappy at work, and you will hear about annoying boss, low wages, uncomfortable workspace or stupid rules. Poorly controlled, environmental factors make people miserable, and it can certainly be demanstruyuchym. But even if it is managed brilliantly, they do not motivate anyone to work harder and smarter. Instead, people are motivated by interesting work, problems and more responsibility. These internal factors are responsible to the needs of people in growth and achievement. Herzberg's work influenced a whole generation of scientists and managers, but its findings do not seem to have penetrated into the American workplace, if extreme attention is still paid to compensation and incentive.
How many articles, books, speeches and workshops plaintively stated: "How do I get an employee to do what I want?"
So what is the motivation? It was defined as a predisposition to act purposefully to achieve specific, unmet needs and the will to achieve, and the internal force that drives people to achieve personal and organizational goals. And why do we need motivated employees? Answer – survival. Motivated employees are needed in our fast-changing workplace. And to be effective, managers need to understand what motivates employees in the context of the roles they perform.
Review of the research literature by James R. Lindner at Ohio State University concluded that employee motivation more due to factors such as interesting work than financial compensation. John Baldoni in the derivation of the problem concluded that motivation comes from a desire to do something on their own, and that the motivation – it's just a behavior management – the desire to do what's right for people and organizations.
Recently, thanks to the expansion of the scope of neyronanavuchannya, we have a new understanding of the question of what motivates people at work. In the July issue of the "Harvard Business Review," July 2008 Author Nitsin Nohryya Boris Groysberg and Linda-boathouse-Lee describe a new model of motivating employees. They outline the four main reasons that lie at the basis of motivation:
1. The purchase Ghost. We are all forced to acquire scarce goods that make themselves feel better. That is why in part the issue of compensation compared with the others.
2. Ghost to bonds. We need to be associated with strong bonds of love, care and accessories.
3. The desire to comprehend. We really want to understand our world, so that we can take the right actions.
4. Ghost defend. We all, of course, protect ourselves, property and achievement.
Thus, organizations can deal with these motivational drives? First through a reward system. Companies with best practices initiated reward systems based on the overall performance and increased employee motivation. Secondly, companies with the best practices decided bond issue, developing a corporate culture based on friendship, mutual dependence, cooperation and sharing, which increases motivation. Third, companies with the best practices decided to issue judgment, setting jobs development system in which jobs are designed for specific roles, and these jobs are important and contribute to a sense of contribution to the organization. Finally, to address the protection problems, the company with the best practices restrukturyzuyuts their approaches to improve the transparency of all processes, ensure fairness throughout the organization, as well as trust and openness with everyone.
Challenges for managers is that leadership needs to give more attention to the latest research and motivation to learn as incentives to motivate enhanced management and cultural changes.